Adding nodes and Updating nodes behind a Cloud Load Balancer

I have succeeded in putting together a basic script documenting exactly how API works and for adding node(s), listing the nods behind the LB, as well as updating the nodes (such as DRAINING, DISABLED, ENABLED).

Use update node to set one of your nodes to gracefully drain (not accept new connections, wait for present connections to die). Naturally, you will want to put the secondary server in behind the load balancer first, with addnode.sh.

Once new node is added as enabled, set the old node to ‘DRAINING’. This will gracefully switch over the server.

# List Load Balancers

#!/bin/bash

USERNAME='yourmycloudusernamegoeshere'
APIKEY='apikeygoeshere'
LB_ID='157089'
CUSTOMER_ID='10017858'

TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" |  python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`



curl -v -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "content-type: application/json" -X GET "https://lon.loadbalancers.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0/$CUSTOMER_ID/loadbalancers/$LB_ID"

#

# Add Node(s) addnode.sh

#!/bin/bash

USERNAME='yourmycloudusernamegoeshere'
APIKEY='apikeygoeshere'
LB_ID='157089'
CUSTOMER_ID='10017858'

TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" |  python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

# Add Node
curl -v -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -d @addnode.json -H "content-type: application/json" -X POST "https://lon.loadbalancers.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0/$CUSTOMER_ID/loadbalancers/$LB_ID/nodes"



## 

For the addnode script you require a file, called addnode.json
that file must contain the snet ip's you wish to add

#
# addnode.json

{"nodes": [
        {
            "address": "10.0.0.1",
            "port": 80,
            "condition": "ENABLED",
            "type":"PRIMARY"
        }
    ]
}

##

##

# updatenode.sh

#!/bin/bash

USERNAME='yourmycloudusernamegoeshere'
APIKEY='apikeygoeshere'
LB_ID='157089'
CUSTOMER_ID='100101010'
NODE_ID=719425

TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: applic

# Update Node

curl -v -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -d @updatenode.json -H "content-type: application/json" -X PUT "https://lon.loadbalancers.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0/$CUSTOMER_ID/loadbalancers/$LB_ID/nodes/$NODE_ID"

##

##

## updatenode.json

{"node":{
            "condition": "DISABLED",
            "type":"PRIMARY"
        }
}

Naturally, you will be able to change condition to ENABLED, DISABLED, or DRAINING.

I recommend to use DRAINING, since it will gracefully remove the cloud-server, and any existing connections will be waited on, before removing the server from LB.

Automating Backups in Public Cloud using Cloud Files

Hey folks, I know it’s been a little while since I put an article together. However I have been putting together a really article explaining how to write bespoke backup systems for the Rackspace Community. It’s a proof of concept/demonstration/tutorial as opposed to a production application. However people looking to create custom cloud backup scripts may benefit from the experience of reading thru it.

You can see the article at the below URL:

https://community.rackspace.com/products/f/25/t/7857

Using Nova and Supernova to manage Firewall IP access lists, automation & more

So, a customer today reached out to us asking if Rackspace provided the entire infrastructure IP address ranges in use on cloud. The answer is, no. However, that doesn’t mean that making your firewall rules, or autoscale automation need to be painful.

In fact, Rackspace Cloud utilizes Openstack which fully supports API calls which will easily be able to provide this detail in just a few simple short steps. To do this you require nova to be installed, this is really relatively easy to install, and instructions for installing it can be found here;

https://support.rackspace.com/how-to/installing-python-novaclient-on-linux-and-mac-os/

Once you have installed nova, it’s simply a case of making sure you set these 4 lines correctly in your .bash_profile

OS_USERNAME=mycloudusernamegoeshere
OS_TENANT_NAME=yourrackspaceaccountnumbergoeshereusuallysomethinglike1010101010
OS_AUTH_SYSTEM=rackspace
OS_PASSWORD=apikeygoeshere
OS_AUTH_URL=https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/
OS_REGION_NAME=LON
OS_NO_CACHE=1
export OS_USERNAME OS_TENANT_NAME OS_AUTH_SYSTEM OS_PASSWORD OS_AUTH_URL OS_REGION_NAME OS_NO_CACHE

OS_USERNAME is your mycloud login username (normally the primary user).
OS_TENANT_NAME is your Customer ID, it’s the number that appears in the URL of your control panel link, see below picture for illustration

Screen Shot 2016-08-10 at 2.45.05 PM

OS_PASSWORD is a bit misleading, this is actually where your apikey goes , but I think it’s possible to authenticate using your control panel password too, don’t do that for security reasons.

OS_REGION_NAME is pretty self explanatory, this is simply the region that you would like to list cloud-server IP’s in or rather, the region that you wish to perform NOVA API calls.

Making the API call using the nova API wrapper

# supernova lon list --tenant 100010101 --fields accessIPv4,name
[SUPERNOVA] Running nova against lon...
+--------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| ID                                   | accessIPv4      | Name      |
+--------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+
| 7e5a7f99-60ae-4c28-b2b8              | 1.1.1.1  |  xapp      |
| 94747603-812d-4594-850b              | 1.1.1.1  |   rabbit2   |
| d5b318aa-0fa2-4269-ae00              | 1.1.1.1  |   elastic5  |
| 6c1d8d33-ae5e-44be-b9f0              | 1.1.1.1  | | elastic6  |
| 9f79a7dc-fd19-4f8f-9c26              |1.1.1.1   | | elastic3  |
| 05b1c52b-6ced-4db0-8af2              | 11.1.1.1 | | elastic1  |
| c8302366-f2f9-4c36-8f7a              | 1.1.1.1  | | app5      |
| b159cd07-8e68-49bc-83ee              | 1.1.1.1  | | app6      |
| f1f31eef-97c6-4c68-b01a              | 1.1.1.1  | | ruby1     |
| 64b7f0fd-8f2f-4d5f-8f89              | 1.1.1.1  | | build3    |
| e320c051-b5cf-473a-9f96              | 1.1.1.1  |   mysql2    |
| 4fddd022-59a8-4502-bf6e              | 1.1.1.1  | | mysql1    |
| c9ad6951-f5f9-4351-b31d              | 1.1.1.1  | | worker2   |
+--------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------+

This is pretty useful for managing autoscale permissions if you need to make sure your corporate network can be connected to from your cloud-servers when new cloud-servers with new IP are built out. considerations like this are really important when putting together a solution. The nice thing is the tools are really quite simple and flexible. If I wanted I could have pulled out detail for servicenet instead. I hope this helps make some folks lives a bit easier and works to demystify API to others that haven’t had the opportunity to use it.

You are probably wondering though, what field names can I use? a nova show will reveal this against one of your server UUID’s

# supernova lon show someuuidgoeshere
+-------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Property                            | Value                                                            |
+-------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| OS-DCF:diskConfig                   | MANUAL                                                           |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:host                | censored                                                   |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:hypervisor_hostname | censored                                                 |
| OS-EXT-SRV-ATTR:instance_name       | instance-734834278-sdfdsfds-                   |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state              | 1                                                                |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state               | -                                                                |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state                 | active                                                           |
| censorednet network                 | censored                                                     |
| accessIPv4                          | censored                                                 |
| accessIPv6                          | censored                      |
| created                             | 2015-12-11T14:12:08Z                                             |
| flavor                              | 15 GB I/O v1 (io1-15)                                            |
| hostId                              | 860...         |
| id                                  | 9f79a7dc-fd19-4f8f-9c26-72a335ed2be8                             |
| image                               | Debian 8 (Jessie) (PVHVM) (cf16c435-7bed-4dc3-b76e-57b09987866d) |
| metadata                            | {"build_config": "", "rax_service_level_automation": "Complete"} |
| name                                | elastic3                                                         |
| private network                     |                                                 |
| progress                            | 100                                                              |
| public network                      |          |
| status                              | ACTIVE                                                           |
| tenant_id                           |                                                    |
| updated                             | 2016-02-27T09:30:20Z                                             |
| user_id                             |                             |
+-------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+

I censored some of the fields.. but you can see all of the column names, so if you wanted to see metadata and progress only, with the server uuid and server name.



nova list --fields name, metadata, progress

This could be pretty handy for detecting when a process has finished building, or detecting once automation has completed. The possibilities with API are quite endless. API is certainly the future, and, there is no reason why, in the future, people won't be building and deploying websites thru API only, and some sophisticated UI wrapper like NOVA.

Admittedly, this is very far away, but that should be what the future technology will be made of, stuff like LAMBDA, serverless architecture, will be the future.

Using Nova/Supernova to increase quota allotments in Openstack

I noticed there were some changes to the way we used openstack quotas today. So I had to do it the manual way! Please note that this can only be done thru the Admin API function, so if you are a Rackspace customer you would need to reach out to us to do this, unless you ran your own openstack or devstack implementation in-house.

Here is how I achieved it:

supernova {environment} {action} --option {number} {customer_ID}
supernova lon quota-update --instances 250 10010101

There is a lot of different commands available, use nova help to get more detail

 supernova lon help quota-update
[SUPERNOVA] Running nova against lon...
usage: nova quota-update [--user ] [--instances ]
                         [--cores ] [--ram ]
                         [--floating-ips ]
                         [--fixed-ips ]
                         [--metadata-items ]
                         [--injected-files ]
                         [--injected-file-content-bytes ]
                         [--injected-file-path-bytes ]
                         [--key-pairs ]
                         [--security-groups ]
                         [--security-group-rules ]
                         [--server-groups ]
                         [--server-group-members ]
                         [--force]
                         

Update the quotas for a tenant/user.

Positional arguments:
                     ID of tenant to set the quotas for.

Optional arguments:
  --user               ID of user to set the quotas for.
  --instances        New value for the "instances" quota.
  --cores                New value for the "cores" quota.
  --ram                    New value for the "ram" quota.
  --floating-ips 
                                New value for the "floating-ips" quota.
  --fixed-ips        New value for the "fixed-ips" quota.
  --metadata-items 
                                New value for the "metadata-items" quota.
  --injected-files 
                                New value for the "injected-files" quota.
  --injected-file-content-bytes 
                                New value for the "injected-file-content-
                                bytes" quota.
  --injected-file-path-bytes 
                                New value for the "injected-file-path-bytes"
                                quota.
  --key-pairs        New value for the "key-pairs" quota.
  --security-groups 
                                New value for the "security-groups" quota.
  --security-group-rules 
                                New value for the "security-group-rules"
                                quota.
  --server-groups 
                                New value for the "server-groups" quota.
  --server-group-members 
                                New value for the "server-group-members"
                                quota.
  --force                       Whether force update the quota even if the
                                already used and reserved exceeds the new
                                quota.

Resetting Rax_Service_Level_Automation metadata

This one is worth a mention because it causes some of our customers alarm. If your seeing this ‘warning’ in your Cloud-server control panel, don’t fret!

Building” “Server build complete. Installing & configuring software.

It’s just automation!

When you build a cloud-server and select the two tick boxes at the bottom of the build server page (scroll right down), this instructs rackspace automation to attempt to install the Rackspace monitoring & Rackspace Backup agent.

When the server finishes building, these are usually applied by the automation, but sometimes it may have an issue logging into the server and doesn’t run as expected.

Since this warning only indicates the monitoring and cloud backup auto-install failed, these can still be installed by yourselves manually at the below location (please note these links may become out of date use docs.rackspace.com and support.rackspace.com for more detail):

# Manually Install Monitoring (if required)
https://support.rackspace.com/how-to/install-and-configure-the-rackspace-monitoring-agent/

# Manually Install Cloud Backup (if required)
https://support.rackspace.com/how-to/rackspace-cloud-backup-install-the-agent-on-linux/

To summarise and clarify, the notification ‘”Server build complete. Installing & configuring software.’ indicates that your server environment built OK, and that the server is waiting for automation to install the additional 2 Rackspace products.

If you see this notification again, it is safe to ignore in terms of the functioning of the cloud-server, and is intended as a warning so you know Rackspace monitoring and cloud backup were not additionally installed by the automation. I have reset the state of your server and you can consider this situation resolved.

If this is causing you concern, it’s actually possible to correct this yourself by installing supernova and novaclient. Please take special care when using admin resources such as nova and API. It’d be difficult to break something if you don’t follow these instructions, but still…take care!

# Install using Python pip the supernova nova wrapper and the rackspace-novaclient
pip install supernova rackspace-novaclient
# Remove the 'rax_service_level_automation' metadata from this server
supernova customer meta serveruuidgoeshere delete rax_service_level_automation

Simples fix. Please note that you will need to configure supernova. This is explained in the supernova category of this blog, and also at:

 

https://developer.rackspace.com/blog/supernova-managing-openstack-environments-made-easy/
https://github.com/major/supernova
https://media.readthedocs.org/pdf/supernova/latest/supernova.pdf

Cheers &

Best wishes,
Adam

Moving Rackspace Cloud Servers between Regions with automation II

Hey folks. So, recently I have been doing a bit of work on the Rackspace community, specifically trying to document and make as easy as possible the importing and exporting of cloud server VHD’s between Rackspace regions. This might be really useful if you are designing some HA or multi-region and/or load balancing solution that might be utilizing autoscale, and other kinds of redundancy too, but moving your ‘golden image’ between regions might be quite difficult if doing the entire process manually or step by step as I have documented in the below two articles:

Exporting Cloud server images from a Rackspace Region https://community.rackspace.com/products/f/25/t/7089

Importing Cloud Server Images to a Rackspace Region https://community.rackspace.com/products/f/25/t/7186

In this article I completely finish writing the ‘automation demo’ of how to specifically move images, without changing much at all, apart from one ‘serverID’ variable, and the source and destination. The script isn’t finished yet, however the last time I posted this on my blog I was so excited, I actually forgot to include the import function. (which is kind of important!) sorry about that.


#!/bin/bash

USERNAME='yourmycloudusernamehere'
APIKEY='youapikeyhere'
API_ENDPOINT='https://lon.servers.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/1000000'
SERVER_ID='94157dc7-924a-424a-8825-c5ffbd341622'
TENANT='1000000'
CUSTOMER_ID='1000000'

#### DO NOT CHANGE BELOW THIS LINE

TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

# START IMAGE CREATION
echo "Creating Image at Local Datacentre"

curl -v -D export-headers \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-H "content-type: application/json" \
-d '{"createImage" : {"name" : "RA-'$SERVER_ID'", "metadata": { "ImageType": "Rackspace Automation Image Exported from '$TENANT'", "ImageVersion": "2.0"}}}' \
-X POST "$API_ENDPOINT/servers/$SERVER_ID/action" -o /tmp/export-file

echo "export headers"
cat export-headers

# Retrieve correct ImageID and use to check status of image
IMAGEID=$(cat export-headers | grep -i location | sed 's/\// /g' | awk '{print $7}')
sleep 5
echo "image id"
echo $IMAGEID

API_ENDPOINT='https://lon.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/images/'
URL=$API_ENDPOINT$IMAGEID
URL=${URL%$'\r'}

curl -v \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 1000000" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-H "content-type: application/json" \
-X GET "$URL" | python -mjson.tool > imagestatus

echo "imagestatus: $imagestatus"

STATUS=$(cat imagestatus | grep status | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')

## WAIT FOR IMAGE TO EXIT SAVE STATE

echo "Waiting for image to complete..."
sleep 5
while [ "$STATUS" != "active" ]; do
echo "image $IMAGEID is still saving..."
sleep 10
curl -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 1000000" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-H "content-type: application/json" \
-X GET "$URL" | python -mjson.tool > imagestatus

STATUS=$(cat imagestatus | grep status | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')
done

## PREPARE/CREATE CLOUD FILES CONTAINER for EXPORT

echo "Preparing/Creating Cloud Files Container for Export"
API_ENDPOINT='https://storage101.lon3.clouddrive.com/v1/MossoCloudFS_1000000'

curl -v -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 1000000" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-X PUT "$API_ENDPOINT/export"
sleep 5

## EXPORT VHD TO CLOUD FILES

echo "Exporting VHD to Cloud Files"
# This section simply retrieves the TOKEN
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

echo "IMAGEID detected as $IMAGEID"
# This section requests the Glance API to copy the cloud server image uuid to a cloud files container called export
# > export-cloudfiles

echo "THE IMAGE ID IS: $IMAGEID"
IMAGEID=${IMAGEID%$'\r'}
curl -v "https://lon.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/$TENANT/tasks" -X POST -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"type": "export", "input": {"image_uuid": "'$IMAGEID'" , "receiving_swift_container": "export"}}' -o export-cloudfiles
echo "Export looks like"

cat export-cloudfiles

sleep 15

echo "export cloud-files looks like:"
cat export-cloudfiles

TASKID_EXPORT=$(cat export-cloudfiles | python -mjson.tool | grep '"id"' | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')

echo "task ID export looks like"
echo "$TASKID_EXPORT"

API_ENDPOINT='https://storage101.lon3.clouddrive.com/v1/MossoCloudFS_1000000'

sleep 15

echo "Waiting for Task to complete..."
## WAIT FOR TASKID EXPORT TO COMPLETE TO CLOUD FILES

# This section simply retrieves the TOKEN
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

# This section requests the Glance API to copy the cloud server image uuid to a cloud files container called export
curl "https://lon.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/1000000/tasks/$TASKID_EXPORT" -X GET -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Content-Type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool > export-status

EXPORT_STATUS=$(cat export-status | grep status | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')

while [ "$EXPORT_STATUS" = "processing" ]; do
sleep 15
curl "https://lon.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/1000000/tasks/$TASKID_EXPORT" -X GET -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Content-Type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool > export-status
EXPORT_STATUS=$(cat export-status | grep status | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')
done

# SET CORRECT CLOUD FILES NAME
CLOUD_FILES_NAME=$(cat export-cloudfiles | python -mjson.tool | grep image_uuid | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/,//g' | sed 's/"//g')

## Download VHD Cloud from Cloud Files to this server

API_ENDPOINT='https://storage101.lon3.clouddrive.com/v1/MossoCloudFS_1000000'

# GET FILE FROM SOURCE CLOUD FILES

URL="$API_ENDPOINT/export/$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd"
URL=${URL%$'\r'}

curl -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: $TENANT" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-X GET "$API_ENDPOINT/export/$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd" > $CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd

## NEW API USER/PASS REQUIRED FOR 2ND REGION

### DO NOT CHANGE ANYTHING ABOVE THIS POINT

USERNAME='yourmycloudusernamegoeshere'
APIKEY='yourapikeyfromsecondregiongoeshere'

### DO NOT CHANGE ANYTHING BELOW THIS POINT

## Now for uploading the VHD to Cloud Files to Destination REGION

API_ENDPOINT='https://storage101.ord1.clouddrive.com/v1/MossoCloudFS_900000'
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

curl -v -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 900000" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-X PUT "$API_ENDPOINT/import"

## Upload VHD Image to Cloud Files destination for import
curl -v -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 900000" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-X PUT "$API_ENDPOINT/import/$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd" -T "$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd"

# Find the Customer_ID
IMPORT_IMAGE_ENDPOINT=https://ord.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/$CUSTOMER_ID

# This section simply retrieves the TOKEN
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

VHD_NOTES="autoimport-$SERVER_ID"
IMPORT_CONTAINER=import
VHD_FILENAME="$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd"

curl -X POST "$IMPORT_IMAGE_ENDPOINT/tasks" \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "Content-Type: application/json" \
-d "{\"type\":\"import\",\"input\":{\"image_properties\":{\"name\":\"$VHD_NOTES\"},\"import_from\":\"$IMPORT_CONTAINER/$VHD_FILENAME\"}}" |\
python -mjson.tool

As You can probably see my code is still rather rough, but it’s just so darn exciting that this script works from start to finish, nicely I just HAD to share it a bit earlier! The plan now is to add commandline function so that you can specify ./moveregion {SOURCE_REGION} {DEST_REGION} {SERVER_ID} {TENANT_ID} . Then a customer or a racker would only need these 4 variables to import and export images in an automated way.

I can rewrite the script in such a way that it would accept a .txt file of a couple of hundred cloud server UUID’s, and it would take the server UUID of each, use that uuid to create an image of each server, export to cloud files, import to cloud files, and then import to glance image store for the second region destination. Which naturally, would save hundreds of hours of human time doing this manually.. which is … nice 😀

I would really like to make a UI frontend, using something like Django, and utilize some form of ‘light’ database, that keeps track of all the API import/exports, and even provides estimated time for completion, but my UI skills are really limited to xhtml, css php and mysql.. I need a python or django guy to help out with some of this. If anyone is interested, please reach out to me.

This project will be avaialble on github soon

Move Rackspace Cloud Servers between Regions (Automation)

Hey!

So I wrote a piece of software (basic) using BASh which exports Rackspace Cloud Servers between regions. It’s pure API CALLS using curl and I’m particularly proud of this piece, since it only took a day. (once I spent the whole of the next day figuring out an issue with the JSON and bash expansion for parameters to export the cloud server image to cloud files).

This is a super rough example of an automation-in-progress for cloud-servers between regions. Once you’ve set the script up, you simply change the serverid, and the script can do the rest, and you can migrate server by server, or perform batch migrates with this.

I’m going to refactor and rewrite it when I have time, but for now, here you are! Enjoy 😀

I hope that this is useful to people, particularly our customers.. when I release a finely tuned version that has commandline arguments support.

#!/bin/bash

USERNAME=''
APIKEY=''
API_ENDPOINT='https://lon.servers.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/100101010'
SERVER_ID='cd2b545b-99d4-42c1-a881-4714f4bf4b92'
TENANT='100101010'
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

# START IMAGE CREATION
echo "Creating Image at Local Datacentre"

curl -v -D export-headers \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-H "content-type: application/json" \
-d '{"createImage" : {"name" : "RA-'$SERVER_ID'", "metadata": { "ImageType": "Rackspace Automation Image Exported from '$TENANT'", "ImageVersion": "2.0"}}}' \
-X POST "$API_ENDPOINT/servers/$SERVER_ID/action" > export-headers

echo "export headers"
cat export-headers

# Retrieve correct ImageID and use to check status of image
IMAGEID=$(cat export-headers | grep -i location | sed 's/\// /g' | awk '{print $7}')
sleep 5
echo "image id"
echo $IMAGEID

API_ENDPOINT='https://lon.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/images/'
URL=$API_ENDPOINT$IMAGEID
URL=${URL%$'\r'}

curl -v \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 100101010" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-H "content-type: application/json" \
-X GET "$URL" | python -mjson.tool > imagestatus

echo "imagestatus: $imagestatus"

STATUS=$(cat imagestatus | grep status | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')

## WAIT FOR IMAGE TO EXIT SAVE STATE

echo "Waiting for image to complete..."
sleep 5
while [ "$STATUS" != "active" ]; do
echo "image $IMAGEID is still saving..."
sleep 10
curl -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 100101010" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-H "content-type: application/json" \
-X GET "$URL" | python -mjson.tool > imagestatus

STATUS=$(cat imagestatus | grep status | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')
done

## PREPARE/CREATE CLOUD FILES CONTAINER for EXPORT

echo "Preparing/Creating Cloud Files Container for Export"
API_ENDPOINT='https://storage101.lon3.clouddrive.com/v1/MossoCloudFS_100101010'

curl -v -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 100101010" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-X PUT "$API_ENDPOINT/export"
sleep 5

## EXPORT VHD TO CLOUD FILES

echo "Exporting VHD to Cloud Files"
# This section simply retrieves the TOKEN
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

echo "IMAGEID detected as $IMAGEID"
# This section requests the Glance API to copy the cloud server image uuid to a cloud files container called export
# > export-cloudfiles

echo "THE IMAGE ID IS: $IMAGEID"
IMAGEID=${IMAGEID%$'\r'}
curl -v "https://lon.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/$TENANT/tasks" -X POST -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{"type": "export", "input": {"image_uuid": "'$IMAGEID'" , "receiving_swift_container": "export"}}' -o export-cloudfiles
echo "Export looks like"

cat export-cloudfiles

sleep 15

echo "export cloud-files looks like:"
cat export-cloudfiles

TASKID_EXPORT=$(cat export-cloudfiles | python -mjson.tool | grep '"id"' | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')

echo "task ID export looks like"
echo "$TASKID_EXPORT"

API_ENDPOINT='https://storage101.lon3.clouddrive.com/v1/MossoCloudFS_100101010'

sleep 15

echo "Waiting for Task to complete..."
## WAIT FOR TASKID EXPORT TO COMPLETE TO CLOUD FILES

# This section simply retrieves the TOKEN
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

# This section requests the Glance API to copy the cloud server image uuid to a cloud files container called export
curl "https://lon.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/10101010/tasks/$TASKID_EXPORT" -X GET -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Content-Type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool > export-status

EXPORT_STATUS=$(cat export-status | grep status | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')

while [ "$EXPORT_STATUS" = "processing" ]; do
sleep 15
curl "https://lon.images.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2/100101010/tasks/$TASKID_EXPORT" -X GET -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Content-Type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool > export-status
EXPORT_STATUS=$(cat export-status | grep status | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/"//g' | sed 's/,//g')
done

# SET CORRECT CLOUD FILES NAME
CLOUD_FILES_NAME=$(cat export-cloudfiles | python -mjson.tool | grep image_uuid | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/,//g' | sed 's/"//g')

## Download VHD Cloud from Cloud Files to this server

API_ENDPOINT='https://storage101.lon3.clouddrive.com/v1/MossoCloudFS_10101010'

# GET FILE FROM SOURCE CLOUD FILES

URL="$API_ENDPOINT/export/$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd"
URL=${URL%$'\r'}

curl -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: $TENANT" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-X GET "$API_ENDPOINT/export/$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd" > $CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd

## NEW API USER/PASS REQUIRED FOR 2ND REGION

USERNAME=''
APIKEY=''

## Now for uploading the VHD to Cloud Files to Destination REGION

API_ENDPOINT='https://storage101.ord1.clouddrive.com/v1/MossoCloudFS_891671'
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" | python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

curl -v -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 891671" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-X PUT "$API_ENDPOINT/import"

## Upload VHD Image to Cloud Files destination for import
curl -v -s \
-H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" \
-H "X-Project-Id: 891671" \
-H "Accept: application/json" \
-X PUT "$API_ENDPOINT/import/$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd" -T "$CLOUD_FILES_NAME.vhd"

Obscene Redundancy utilizing Rackspace Cloud Files

So, you may have noticed over the past weeks and months I have been a little bit quieter about the articles I have been writing. Mainly because I’ve been working on a new github project, which, although simple, and lightweight is actually really rather outrageously powerful.

https://github.com/aziouk/obsceneredundancy

Imagine being able to take 15+ redundant replica copies of your files, across 5 or 6 different datacentres. Rackspace Cloud Files API powered, but also with a lot of the flexibility of Bourne Again Shell (BASH).

This was actually quite a neat achievement and I am pleased with the results. There are still some limitations of this redundant replica application, and there are a few bugs, but it is a great proof of concept which shows what you can do with the API both quickly and cheaply (ish). Using filesystems as a service will be the future with some further innovation on the world wide network infrastructure, and it would only take a small breakthrough to rapidly alter the way that OS and machines boot/backup.

If you want to see the project and read the source code before I lay out and describe/explain the entire process of writing this software as well as how to deploy it with cron on linux, then you need wait no longer. Revision 1 alpha is now tested, ready and working in 5 different datacentres.

You can actually toggle which datacentres you wish to utilize as well, it is slightly flexible. The only important consideration here is to understand that there are some limitations such as a lack of de-duping, and this uses tar’s and swiftly, instead of directly querying the API. Since directly uploading thru the API a tar file is relatively simple, I will probably implement it like that as I have before and get rid of swiftly in future iterations, however such a project is really ideal for learning more about BASH , CRON, API and programmatic automation of and sequential filesystems utilizing functional programming and division of labour between workers,

https://github.com/aziouk/obsceneredundancy

Test it (please note it will be a little bit buggy on different environments and there is no instructions yet)

git clone https://github.com/aziouk/obsceneredundancy

Cheers &

Best wishes,
Adam

Downloading / Backing up all Rackspace Cloud Files

Here’s a quick and dirty way to download your entire Rackspace Cloud Files container. This comes up a lot at work.

INSTALLING SWIFTLY

# Debian / Ubuntu systems
apt-get install python-pip
# CentOS and Redhat Systems
yum install python-pip
pip install swiftly

Once you have installed swiftly, you will want to configure your swiftly client. This is also relatively easy.

CONFIGURING SWIFTLY

# create a file in your ‘home’ environment. Using ~ is the root users directory
# if logged in as root on a unix server

touch ~/.swiftly.conf 

You will want to edit the file above

pico ~/.swiftly.conf 

The file needs to look exactly like the text below:

[swiftly]
auth_user = yourmycloudusername
auth_key = yourapikey
auth_url = https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0
region = LON

To save in pico you type CTRL + O

You have now installed swiftly, and configured swiftly. You should then be able to simply run the command:

Running swiftly to download all containers/files on Rackspace Cloud Files

swiftly get --all-objects --output=mycloudfiles/

This comes up a lot, I am sure that some people out there will appreciate this!

Checking Load Balancer Connectivity & Automating it in some interesting ways

So, in a dream last night, I woke up realising I had forgot to write my automated load balancer connectivity checker.

Basically, sometimes a customer will complain their site is down because their ‘load balancer is broken’! In many cases, this is actually due to a firewall on one of the nodes behind the load balancer, or an issue with the webserver application listening on the port. So, I wrote a little piece of automation in the form of a BASH script, that accepts an Load Balancer ID and then uses the API to pull the server nodes behind that Load Balancer, including the ports being used to communicate, and then uses, either netcat or nmap to check that port for connectivity. There were a few ways to achieve this, but the below is what I was happiest with.

#!/bin/bash

# Username used to login to control panel
USERNAME='mycloudusernamegoeshere'

# Find the APIKey in the 'account settings' part of the menu of the control panel
APIKEY="apikeygoeshere"

# Your Rackspace account number (the number that is in the URL of the control panel after logging in)
ACCOUNT=100101010

# Your Rackspace loadbalancerID
LOADBALANCERID=157089

# Rackspace LoadBalancer Endpoint
ENDPOINT="https://lon.loadbalancers.api.rackspacecloud.com/v1.0"

# This section simply retrieves and sets the TOKEN
TOKEN=`curl https://identity.api.rackspacecloud.com/v2.0/tokens -X POST -d '{ "auth":{"RAX-KSKEY:apiKeyCredentials": { "username":"'$USERNAME'", "apiKey": "'$APIKEY'" }} }' -H "Content-type: application/json" |  python -mjson.tool | grep -A5 token | grep id | cut -d '"' -f4`

#   (UNUSED) METHOD 1Extract IP addresses (Currently assuming port 80 only)
#curl -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Accept: application/json" -X GET "$ENDPOINT/$ACCOUNT/loadbalancers/$LOADBALANCERID/nodes" | jq .nodes[].address | xargs -i nmap -p 80 {}
#   (UNUSED) Extract ports
# curl -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Accept: application/json" -X GET "$ENDPOINT/$ACCOUNT/loadbalancers/$LOADBALANCERID/nodes" | jq .nodes[].port | xargs -i nmap -p 80 {}


# I opted for using this method to extract the important detail
curl -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Accept: application/json" -X GET "$ENDPOINT/$ACCOUNT/loadbalancers/$LOADBALANCERID/nodes" | jq .nodes[].address | sed 's/"//g' > address.txt
curl -H "X-Auth-Token: $TOKEN" -H "Accept: application/json" -X GET "$ENDPOINT/$ACCOUNT/loadbalancers/$LOADBALANCERID/nodes" | jq .nodes[].port > port.txt

# Loop thru both output files sequentially, order is important
# WARNING script does not ignore whitespace

while read addressfile1 <&3 && read portfile2 <&4; do
   ncat $addressfile1 $portfile2
done 3

Output looks a bit like;

# ./lbtest.sh
% Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current
Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed
100 5143 100 5028 100 115 4731 108 0:00:01 0:00:01 --:--:-- 4734
% Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current
Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed
100 225 100 225 0 0 488 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 488
% Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current
Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed
100 225 100 225 0 0 679 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 681
Ncat: No route to host.
Ncat: Connection timed out.

I plan to add some additional support that will check the load balancer is up, AND the servicenet connection between the cloud servers.

Please note that this script must be run on a machine with access to servicenet network, in the same Rackspace Datacenter to be able to check servicenet connectivity of servers. The script can give false positives if strict firewall rules are setup on the cloud server nodes behind the load balancer. It's kind of alpha-draft but I thought I would share it as a proof of concept.

You will need to download and install jq to use it. To download jq please see; https://stedolan.github.io/jq/download/